The coins were made from electrum, a mixture of silver and gold that occurs naturally, and stamped with pictures that acted as denominations.
In the 5th century BCE, the Carthaginian explorer Hanno sailed beyond the Pillars of Hercules, out of the Mediterranean and into hitherto unknown territory down the Atlantic coast of Africa.
From the 6th and until the 1st century BCE the Agora as the heart of the government and the judiciary, as a public place of debate, as a place of worship, and as marketplace.
The tunnel is the second known tunnel in history which was excavated from both ends and the first with a geometry-based approach in doing so.
An ancient metropolis, the capital of the Republic of the Vaishali state and the capital of the Vajjian Confederacy (Vijji), Vaishali is prominently mentioned in Jain and Buddhist texts which emerged later.
The early Scythian kingdoms were dominated by inter-ethnic forms of dependency based on subjugation of agricultural populations in eastern South Caucasia, plunder and taxes regular tribute, tribute disguised as gifts, and possibly also payments for military support.
The Sushruta Samhita is one of the most important treatises on medicine and herbalism to survive from the ancient world.