On 29 May 1999, Abubakar transferred power to the winner of the 1999 presidential election, former military ruler General Olusegun Obasanjo as the second democratically elected civilian President of Nigeria heralding the beginning of the Fourth Nigerian Republic.
The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1 November 1993. In 1995, Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the EU.
In his inaugural address, Mandela, who spent 27 years of his life as a political prisoner of the South African government, declared that the time for the healing of the wounds has come.
July 23–26, 1993 saw the first multiparty presidential and legislative elections held under the new constitution, as well as a resounding victory for President René.
In late 1993 a presidential council was formed, the life presidency was abolished and a new constitution was put into place. In 1994 the first multi-party elections were held in Malawi.
The constitution instituted the first meaningful system of checks and balances the country had ever seen.
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan is recognized as independent state at first by Turkey, Israel, Romania and Pakistan.
On 1 December, voters approved a referendum formalizing independence from the Soviet Union. Over 90% of Ukrainian citizens voted for independence, with majorities in every region, including 56% in Crimea.
After Uzbekistan declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, an election was held, and Islam Karimov was elected as the first President of Uzbekistan on 29 December 1991.
Extensive protests made Zambian President Kaunda realise the need for reform. He promised a referendum on multiparty democracy, and lifted the ban on political parties. After pressure for the new parties the referendum was canceled in favour of direct multiparty election.