The Preliminary Peace Convention accorded independence to Uruguay in respect to Brazil and Argentina. Uruguay’s independence would be definitively sealed on 4 October of the same year when, in Montevideo, the signing nations ratified the treaty.
British scientist William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet in 1824. His first electromagnet was a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron that was wrapped with about 18 turns of bare copper wire.
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.
Honduras gained independence from Spain in 1821 and was a part of the First Mexican Empire until 1823, when it became part of the United Provinces of Central America. It has been an independent republic and has held regular elections since 1838.
Timing the action with the rest of the Central American isthmus, Panama declared independence in 1821 and joined the southern federation.
On August 24, 1821, O’Donojú signed the Treaty of Córdoba, thus ending New Spain’s dependence on Old Spain.
General San Martín invited all of the populace of Lima to swear oath to the Independence cause. The signing of the Act of Independence of Peru was held on 15 July 1821.
The first confirmed sighting of mainland Antarctica is attributed to a Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev, discovering an ice shelf at Princess Martha Coast..