After the 1st call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Bolivian Republic, named for the Liberator Simón Bolívar, on August 6, 1825.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was a French naturalist and an early proponent of the idea that biological evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws.
In 1809, Nicolas Appert, a French confectioner and brewer, observed that food cooked inside a jar did not spoil unless the seals leaked, and developed a method of sealing food in glass jars.
The Grand Duchy of Finland or, more accurately, the Grand Principality of Finland, was the predecessor state of modern Finland. It existed between 1809 and 1917 as an autonomous part of the Russian Empire.
The Slave Trade Act 1807 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom prohibiting the slave trade in the British Empire.
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The voltaic pile became one of the first reliable sources of electricity, and that new source of study enabled many discoveries in the field, from the understanding of the electrolysis of water to the research of electric arcs.