The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- to 17th-century Europe.
The main reason for this rather unusual alliance between separate tribes was to react against slavery and wholesale murder and destruction wrought by the early Portuguese discoverers and colonisers of Brazil onto the Tupinambá people.
The period between the 16th and the 19th centuries saw the emergence of organized Iron Age kingdoms in Zambia. Four kingdoms were established in this period – the Kazembe-Lunda, the Bemba, the Chewa, and the Lozi.