France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate. The United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15, 1914.
Macau’s golden age coincided with the union of the Spanish and Portuguese crowns, between 1580 and 1640. King Philip II of Spain was encouraged to not harm the status quo, to allow trade to continue between Portuguese Macau and Spanish Manila, and to not interfere with Portuguese trade with China.
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Arabs were trading the highly valued coco de mer nuts, found only in Seychelles, long before European discovery of the islands. This suggests they were among the first humans to visit the island.
The earliest types of guild formed as a confraternities of tradesmen. They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society.
Since the 5th century, merchant ships travelling between Southeast Asia and Guangzhou used the region as a port for refuge, fresh water, and food.
According to ancient Chinese (977),:129 Indian and Japanese manuscripts, western coastal cities of Borneo had become trading ports by the first millennium AD.
The network was used regularly from 130 BCE, when the Han Dynasty of China officially opened trade with the west, to 1453 CE, when the Ottoman Empire boycotted trade with the west and closed the routes.