Extensive protests made Zambian President Kaunda realise the need for reform. He promised a referendum on multiparty democracy, and lifted the ban on political parties. After pressure for the new parties the referendum was canceled in favour of direct multiparty election.
The Zambia Independence Act 1964 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which granted independence to Zambia (formerly the protectorate of Northern Rhodesia) with effect from 24 October 1964.
The period between the 16th and the 19th centuries saw the emergence of organized Iron Age kingdoms in Zambia. Four kingdoms were established in this period – the Kazembe-Lunda, the Bemba, the Chewa, and the Lozi.
In the 12th century, waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people (also called Ba-Tonga, “Ba-” meaning “men”) were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the “big sea”.
The San peoples, also known as the Bushmen, are members of various indigenous hunter-gatherer groups that are the first nations of Southern Africa, and whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, and South Africa.