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Lebanon declares independence from France

Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities.

Phoenician civilization flourishes in the eastern Mediterranean

Phoenicia was an ancient civilization composed of independent city-states located along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea stretching through what is now Syria, Lebanon and northern Israel.

The first settlement at Baalbek is founded in modern-day Lebanon

Inhabited as early as 9000 BCE, Baalbek grew into an important pilgrimage site in the ancient world for the worship of the Phoenician sky-god Baal and his consort Astarte, the Queen of Heaven.

The site of modern-day Beirut is settled for the first time

Several archaeological sites have been discovered in Beirut, revealing flint tools of sequential periods dating from the Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Paleolithic through the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.

Qaraoun culture flourishes in modern-day Lebanon

The Qaraoun culture is a culture of the Lebanese Stone Age around Qaraoun in the Beqaa Valley.

Early humans settle Ksar Akil in modern-day Lebanon

It is assumed to be one of the earliest known sites containing Upper Paleolithic technologies including Ahmarian cultural objects.