The initiative, known as the Great Green Wall, aims to reclaim 247 million acres of land by the year 2030 and create hundreds of thousands of jobs, while warding off the spread of the Sahara and combating the climate crisis.
In January 1959, Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on 20 June 1960. The transfer of power agreement with France was signed on 4 April 1960.
Timbuktu started out as a seasonal settlement and became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory, and slaves.