Kazakhstan

Flag of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan declares independence from the Soviet Union

Following the August 1991 aborted coup attempt in Moscow, Kazakhstan declared independence on 16 December 1991, thus becoming the last Soviet republic to declare independence. Ten days later, the Soviet Union itself ceased to exist.

Oguz Yabgu State in Kazakhstan, 750–1055

Oghuz Turks found the Oguz Yabgu State in modern-day Kazakhstan

The Oguz Yabgu State was a Turkic state, founded by Oghuz Turks in 766, located geographically in an area between the coasts of the Caspian and Aral Seas. Oguz tribes occupied a vast territory in Kazakhstan along the Irgiz, Yaik, Emba, and Uil rivers, the Aral Sea area, the Syr Darya valley, the foothills of the Karatau Mountains in Tien-Shan, and the Chui River valley.

Scythia

The first Scythian kingdom comes to power in Central Eurasia

The early Scythian kingdoms were dominated by inter-ethnic forms of dependency based on subjugation of agricultural populations in eastern South Caucasia, plunder and taxes regular tribute, tribute disguised as gifts, and possibly also payments for military support.

Saka art

The Saka peoples thrive in the Eurasian Steppe

The Saka were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples who historically inhabited the northern and eastern Eurasian Steppe and the Tarim Basin. The Saka are attested in historical and archaeological records dating to around the 8th century BC.

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