Archive of Human Genius

The world’s largest database of social change milestones from throughout human history

We are building the world’s largest database of social change milestones, from the first fire to today’s good news. Change is not only possible, it has happened consistently throughout human history.

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  • Early John Deere plow
    1837 C.E. October 4

    John Deere invents the first commercially successful steel plow

    The wrought-iron framed plow had a polished steel share. This made it ideal for the tough soil of the Midwest United States and worked better than other plows.


  • px International Morse Code svg
    1836 C.E. November 1

    Samuel Morse invents Morse code

    In an emergency, Morse code can be sent by improvised methods that can be easily "keyed" on and off, making it one of the simplest and most versatile methods of telecommunication.


  • Petition slavery
    1833 C.E. June 27

    The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery in parts of the British Empire

    This Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom expanded the jurisdiction of the Slave Trade Act 1807 and made the purchase or ownership of slaves illegal within the British Empire, with the exception of "the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company."


  • Flag of Ecuador
    1830 C.E. May 13

    The Republic of Ecuador is founded

    Ecuador initially joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia. However, in 1830, Ecuador separated from Gran Colombia and became an independent republic.


  • Flag of Uruguay
    1828 C.E. October 4

    The Treaty of Montevideo is ratified, granting independence for Uruguay

    The Preliminary Peace Convention accorded independence to Uruguay in respect to Brazil and Argentina. Uruguay's independence would be definitively sealed on 4 October of the same year when, in Montevideo, the signing nations ratified the treaty.


  • Sturgeon's electromagnet, 1824
    1824 C.E. December 6

    William Sturgeon invents the electromagnet

    British scientist William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet in 1824.  His first electromagnet was a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron that was wrapped with about 18 turns of bare copper wire.


  • Painting of Brazilian Independence in
    1822 C.E. September 7

    Brazil declares independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves

    The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.


  • Flag of Empire of Brazil
    1822 C.E. July 2

    Bahia gains independence, ending Portuguese rule in Brazil

    Control of the province was disputed in several battles, mostly in Pirajá, before the Portuguese were fully expelled on 2 July 1823. Bahia became a Brazilian state in 1889.


  • px Flag of Honduras svg
    1821 C.E. November 22

    Honduras declares indedendence from Spain

    Honduras gained independence from Spain in 1821 and was a part of the First Mexican Empire until 1823, when it became part of the United Provinces of Central America. It has been an independent republic and has held regular elections since 1838.


  • Acta independecia de Panamá
    1821 C.E. October 28

    Panama declares independence from Spain

    Timing the action with the rest of the Central American isthmus, Panama declared independence in 1821 and joined the southern federation.


  • Early John Deere plow
    1837 C.E. October 4

    John Deere invents the first commercially successful steel plow

    The wrought-iron framed plow had a polished steel share. This made it ideal for the tough soil of the Midwest United States and worked better than other plows.


  • px International Morse Code svg
    1836 C.E. November 1

    Samuel Morse invents Morse code

    In an emergency, Morse code can be sent by improvised methods that can be easily "keyed" on and off, making it one of the simplest and most versatile methods of telecommunication.


  • Petition slavery
    1833 C.E. June 27

    The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery in parts of the British Empire

    This Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom expanded the jurisdiction of the Slave Trade Act 1807 and made the purchase or ownership of slaves illegal within the British Empire, with the exception of "the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company."


  • Flag of Ecuador
    1830 C.E. May 13

    The Republic of Ecuador is founded

    Ecuador initially joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia. However, in 1830, Ecuador separated from Gran Colombia and became an independent republic.


  • Flag of Uruguay
    1828 C.E. October 4

    The Treaty of Montevideo is ratified, granting independence for Uruguay

    The Preliminary Peace Convention accorded independence to Uruguay in respect to Brazil and Argentina. Uruguay's independence would be definitively sealed on 4 October of the same year when, in Montevideo, the signing nations ratified the treaty.


  • Sturgeon's electromagnet, 1824
    1824 C.E. December 6

    William Sturgeon invents the electromagnet

    British scientist William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet in 1824.  His first electromagnet was a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron that was wrapped with about 18 turns of bare copper wire.


  • Painting of Brazilian Independence in
    1822 C.E. September 7

    Brazil declares independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves

    The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.


  • Flag of Empire of Brazil
    1822 C.E. July 2

    Bahia gains independence, ending Portuguese rule in Brazil

    Control of the province was disputed in several battles, mostly in Pirajá, before the Portuguese were fully expelled on 2 July 1823. Bahia became a Brazilian state in 1889.


  • px Flag of Honduras svg
    1821 C.E. November 22

    Honduras declares indedendence from Spain

    Honduras gained independence from Spain in 1821 and was a part of the First Mexican Empire until 1823, when it became part of the United Provinces of Central America. It has been an independent republic and has held regular elections since 1838.


  • Acta independecia de Panamá
    1821 C.E. October 28

    Panama declares independence from Spain

    Timing the action with the rest of the Central American isthmus, Panama declared independence in 1821 and joined the southern federation.



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